Italy - Sardegna Placeholder
Italy - Sardegna

SARDEGNA

 

The archaeological history of Sardinia begins in the Neolithic period. Monuments Neolithic and Chalcolithic in Sardinia – huge “tombs of the giants”, the tomb of the “Domus de Janas” and the mysterious Sardinian ziggurat, resembling the ziggurats of Mesopotamia. Sardinian culture maintained contact with Minoan Crete and other Mediterranean cultures. Under the influence of Corsica Sardinia was in the prehistoric period, archeological periodization and monuments which are almost identical Sardinian.

The most famous of the ancient Sardinian brought nuragichesky period – Eneolithic cultures intruders from the eastern Mediterranean, leaving nuraghe – tower in the shape of a truncated cone 10-20 meters high, built of dry masonry of large roughly hewn stones, dating from the period of XV-VII centuries BC. e. Also Nuraghe for this crop are typical made in the same construction technique as the Nuraghe, round in terms of the hut, with a diameter of 5-6 meters, grouped around Nuraghe in settlements (villages nuragicheskie). One of the best kept complexes nuragicheskih is Su-Nuraxi near Barumini, declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site. This same culture, apparently, are other monuments of ancient architecture – “the tomb of the giants.”

For nuragiyskoy culture as typical of votive bronzes destination (Italian bronzetti.) – Anthropomorphic and zoomorphic, and figurines in the form of boats (Italian navicelli.). The question of the origin of the Sardinians – inhabitants nuragiyskogo period of the island – is unclear, some Egyptologists (VB de Rouge and F. Chabas J. et al.) Are associated with the Sardinians one of the “Sea Peoples” – Chardin, who attempted invasion of Egypt during reign of Merneptah and Ramses III (XIII-XII centuries. BC. e.), but this opinion is disputed. According to AI Nemirovsky, nuragicheskoy culture media associated with the Etruscans.

In the VII century BC. e. It began Phoenician colonization of Sardinia. On the island was built the city of Nora, Sulh, bitiya, Tharros [1]. In 535 BC. e. the island was subordinate to Carthage in 238 BC. e. Rome using antikarfagenskim uprising mercenaries Libyans and slaves captured Sardinia.

In the V century, Sardinia was invaded by the Vandals, but in the VI century Belisarius in the campaign against the Vandals Carthage returned to Sardinia in the Byzantine Empire. The leader of the “barbarians” Gospiton allowed to Christianize the central part of Sardinia – Barbagia, which before had been beyond the control of either Rome or vandals.

After the Moors took possession of the African exarchate, the island continued to rule the judge, or Judex. After the expulsion of the Arabs in the X century an era of feudal fragmentation. The main form of the political system served judicata. The largest of the judicata was Arboreysky.

Since 1326 Sardinia under the rule of the Aragonese dynasty; later it belonged to Spain.

In 1708, during the War of the Spanish Succession, captured by Austria, which has been fixed Rashtattskim peace treaty in 1714.

In 1720, the Treaty of London on Sardinia was handed the House of Savoy, resulting in Piedmont, Savoy and Sardinia were merged into the Kingdom of Sardinia, became part of Italy after its unification.